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Publications

The New Jersey Land Title Institute is pleased to offer the 4th Edition of New Jersey Title Practice, by Lawrence J. Fineberg, Esq., CTP. This comprehensive text examines and cites all of the laws, rules, cases, and customs that impact title insurance. If purchasing by check, click here to download an order form. Otherwise select from the options below.

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To download a copy of the Table of Contents, Table of Exhibits, or the Index, click on one of the links below.

 

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Select a chapter from the dropdown below, then click on the chapter name to expand and see the contents of the chapter. Their will be a link there to download the chapter if you want to see the contents of the entire chapter.

Chapter 1 History and Development Of Land Ownership and Conveyancing

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§1.01. Introduction.
§1.02. Historical Background; Feudalism.
§1.03. Statute Quia Emptores.
§1.04. Decline and Collapse of the Feudal System.
§1.05. Conveyancing Under the Feudal System; Importance of Seisin.
§1.06. Later Developments.

Chapter 2 Estates And Future Interests In Land

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§2.01. Estates in Land; In General
§2.02. Fee Simple (Absolute) Estates
§2.03. Fee Tail Estates
§2.04. Fee Simple Determinable Estates
§2.05. Fee Simple Conditional Estates
§2.06. Life Estates
§2.07. Estates for Years
§2.08. Other Non-Freehold Estates
§2.09. Future Interests Defined
§2.10. Reversion
§2.11. Remainders; Vested and Contingent
§2.12. Executory Interest
§2.13. Possibility of Reverter
§2.14. Right of Entry on Condition Broken or Power of Termination
§2.15. The Rule in Shelley's Case
§2.16. The Rule Against Perpetuities
§2.17. Rule Against Restraints on Alienation
§2.18. The Doctrine of Worthier Title
§2.19. Alienation of Future Interests
§2.20. Powers of Appointment
§2.21. Merger of Estates

Chapter 3 Encumbrances, Liens, Defects, And Servitudes

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§3.01. In General
§3.02. “Encumbrance” Defined
§3.03. “Lien” Defined
§3.04. “Defect” Defined
§3.05. “Servitude” Defined
§3.06. Easements as Servitudes
§3.07. Restrictive Covenants as Servitudes
§3.08. “Cloud on Title” Defined
§3.09. Disposition of Encumbrances, etc.

 Chapter 4 Easements Generally

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§4.01. In General.
§4.02. Easements Distinguished from Licenses, etc.
§4.03. Creation of Easements.
§4.04. … By Grant or Reservation.
§4.05. … By Implication (Including Necessity).
§4.06. … By Prescription.
§4.07. Termination of Easements.
§4.08. … By Written Instrument; Merger; etc.
§4.09. … By Abandonment.
§4.10. … By Overburdening.
§4.11. Unenforceable Easements.
§4.12. Easements as Objections to Title and as Insurable Interests.

Chapter 5 Title To Realty; Its Acquisition And Disposition

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§5.01. In General.
§5.02. Descent.
§5.03. Devise.
§5.04. Deed of Conveyance.
§5.05. Escheat.
§5.06. Eminent Domain.
§5.07. Adverse Possession.
§5.08. Accretion and Erosion.
§5.09. Judicial Proceedings.
§5.10. Capacity to Acquire, Hold and Convey Title.
§5.11. Marketable Title.
§5.12. [Material transferred to §5.11.]
§5.13. Contract Provisions.
§5.14. Insurable Title Defined.
§5.15. Color of Title.
§5.16. Legal vs. Equitable Title.
§5.17. Co-Ownership.
§5.18. Recording Acts.
§5.19. Statute of Frauds.

Chapter 6 Origin of Title to New Jersey

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§6.01. Historical Background.
§6.02. The Boards of Proprietors.
§6.02A. [Material transferred to §6.07.]
§6.03. Severance of Title From the Boards.
§6.04. Division Line Between East and West Jersey.
§6.05. Title to Certain Lands Still Vested in the Boards.
§6.06. Counties of New Jersey.
§6.07. Native Americans.

Chapter 7 The Recording System

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§7.01. Historical Background.
§7.01A. Current Recording Act
§7.02. Former Recording Act.
§7.02A. Constructive Notice.
§7.03. System of Searching.
§7.04. Inadvertently Recorded Documents.
§7.05. Are Indices Part of the Record?
§7.06. Period of Search.
§7.07. Actual Notice.
§7.08. Inquiry Notice.
§7.09. Recording vs. Filing.
§7.10. Title Registration (Torrens Title).
§7.11. Open Public Records Act.

Chapter 8 Search and Examination of Titles

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§8.01. In General.
§8.02. County Recording Officers.
§8.03. Custom and Practice of Searching.
§8.04. Period of Search.
§8.05. Title Plants.
§8.06. Records to be Searched; Public Records.
§8.07. Other Searches.
§8.08. The “Gap” Period.
§8.09. Examination of Title.

Chapter 9 Development and Role of Title Insurance

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§9.01. Historical Background.
§9.02. Development of Title Insurance.
§9.02A. Nature of Title Insurance.
§9.03. Role of the Attorney.
§9.04. Role of Title Insurance Today.
§9.05. Role of the Agent.
§9.06. Trade Associations.

Chapter 10 Principles of Title Insurance Underwriting

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§10.01. In General.
§10.02. Construction of Title Insurance Policies.
§10.03. Standard vs. Extra-hazardous Risks.
§10.04. Title vs. Casualty Insurance.
§10.05. Underwriting Philosophy.
§10.06. Affirmative Insurance; In General.
§10.07. Affirmative Insurance; “Insuring Over” vs. Omitting.
§10.08. Affirmative Insurance; Traditional Phrases.
§10.09. Affirmative Insurance; Useful Phrases.
§10.10. Owner’s vs. Loan Policies.
§10.11. “Comfort” Letters; Opinion Letters.

Chapter 11 Policy, Commitment, and Endorsement Forms

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§11.01. In General; Governmental Regulation.
§11.02. Coverage Afforded by the Commitment.
§11.03. Coverage Afforded by the Policy; In General.
§11.03A. Coverage Afforded by the Owner’s Policy.
§11.03B. Coverage Afforded by the Loan Policy.
§11.03C. Coverage Afforded by Leasehold Policies.
§11.03D. United States of America Policy.
§11.04. The Residential (“Plain Language”) Policy.
§11.05. [Material Transferred to §11.03B]
§11.06. [Material Transferred to §11.03C]
§11.07. [Material Transferred to §11.03D]
§11.08. Other Policy Forms.
§11.09. ALTA 1987 Policies; Arbitration Provision.
§11.10. ALTA 1990 and 1992 Policies; Creditors’ Rights Exclusion.
§11.10A. [Material Transferred to §11.10F].
§11.10B. ALTA 2006 Forms.
§11.10C. ALTA 2006 Owner’s Policy.
§11.10D. ALTA 2006 Loan Policy.
§11.10E. [Material Transferred to §11.10G]
§11.10F. “Enhanced Coverage” Policies.
§11.10G. ALTA 2006 Endorsements; Survey Coverage.
§11.11. Endorsements; Underwriting Practices.
§11.12. Commitment and Policy Forms.
§11.13. Endorsement Forms.

Chapter 12 Risk Apportionment: Co Insurance and Reinsurance

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§12.01. In General.
§12.02. “Co-Insurance” Defined.
§12.03. Co-Insurance Practices.
§12.04. Commitment and Policy Exceptions.
§12.05. Co-Insurance and Reinsurance.
§12.06. Excess Co-Insurance.
§12.07. “Joint and Several” Co-Insurance.
§12.08. Co-Insurance Pricing.
§12.09. “Reinsurance” Defined.
§12.10. Retention Limits.
§12.11. Mechanics of Reinsurance.

Chapter 13 Claims Against Title Insurers

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§13.01. In General
§13.02. Claims Arising Under the Policy
§13.02A. Construction of Policy; Exclusions
§13.03. Duties of the Insurer and the Insured
§13.04. The Duty to Defend
§13.05. The Duty to Indemnify
§13.06. Extra-Policy Liability
§13.07. Claims Procedures; “Bad Faith” Claims
§13.07A. Consumer Fraud Act.
§13.08. Subrogation; Recoupment
§13.09. Informal Claims Resolution

Chapter 14 Governmental Regulation Under the Title Insurance and Insurance Producer Acts

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§14.01. In General
§14.02. Overview of the Title Act
§14.03. Regulation of Rates; Anti-Trust Considerations
§14.04. Regulation of Forms
§14.05. Overview of the Producer Act
§14.05A. Producer Act 2001
§14.06. Producer Act Regulations
§14.06A. Producer Act 2001
§14.07. Enforcement Powers; Controlled Business
§14.07A. [Material transferred to §15.01].
§14.07B. [Material transferred to §15.02].
§14.07C. [Material transferred to §15.03].
§14.07D. [Material transferred to §15.04].
§14.08. Conflict between the Title Act and the Producer Act
§14.09. The Rating Structure
§14.10. [Material transferred to §15.05].

Chapter 15 Governmental Regulation of Information Services

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§15.01. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
§15.02. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act Privacy Notice
§15.03. Information Practices; Information Security Program
§15.04. Retention and Disposal of Information
§15.05. Sales and Use Tax; Information Services

Chapter 16 - 20 Reserved for future use

Reserved for future use

Chapter 21 Access; Dedication of Streets and Roads

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§21.01. In General
§21.02. [Intentionally omitted]
§21.03. Determining Whether Street or Road is Public
§21.04. Nature and Extent of Municipality’s Interest in Public Street or Road
§21.05. Fee Simple Acquired by Governmental Body
§21.06. Underwriting Practices; In General
§21.07. Underwriting Practices; Access by Easement
§21.08. Insuring Property with Limited or No Access

Chapter 22 Adverse Possession

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§22.01. In General; Statutory Scheme
§22.02. Underwriting Practices
§22.03. Prescriptive Easements
§22.04. Adverse Possession by Adjoining Owners

Chapter 23 Affidavits of Title

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§23.01. In General
§23.02. Importance of Affidavits of Title
§23.03. Reluctance to Provide Affidavits of Title
§23.04. Underwriting Practices; In General
§23.05. Refusal to Provide Affidavit

Chapter 24 Air Rights and Air Space

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§24.01. In General
§24.02. Fee Simple or Leasehold in Area Above the Surface of the Ground
§24.03. Easements for Light and Air
§24.04. Solar Easements
§24.05. Other Easements and Rights
§24.06. Severance of Land and Buildings
§24.07. Insuring Air Space Easements
§24.08. Insuring Air Space Fee Simple and Leasehold Estates
§24.09. Insuring Severance of Lands and Buildings
§24.10. Description of Air Space

Chapter 25 Aliens

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§25.01. In General
§25.02. In Wartime
§25.03. Alien Corporations
§25.04. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 26 Application for Insurance

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§26.01. In General
§26.02. Applicant’s Conflict of Interest
§26.03. Pro Se Applicants
§26.04. Notice and Waiver
§26.05. Important Notice and Disclosure Form

Chapter 27 Attorney-Customers and Closing Service Letters

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§27.01. Approved Attorneys
§27.02. Obtaining Attorney-Customer Status
§27.03. Certificate of Title
§27.04. Closing Service Letters; In General
§27.04A. Judicial Treatment of Closing Service Letters
§27.05. Out-of-State Attorneys
§27.06. Alterations to the Closing Service Letter
§27.07. Non-Issuance of Closing Service Letters
§27.08. Blanket Letters
§27.09. Charges
§27.10. Attorney/Agency Relationships
§27.11. Closing of Title

Chapter 28 Assignments For The Benefit Of Creditors

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§28.01. In General
§28.02. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 29 Bankruptcy

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§29.01. In General
§29.02. Overview of Bankruptcy Administration; Discharge of Debtor
§29.03. Prior Concluded Bankruptcy
§29.04. Pending Bankruptcy Proceedings
§29.05. [Material transferred to §29.04.]
§29.06. Sale, Lease, or Mortgage by Trustee
§29.07. Sales “Subject to” or “Free and Clear” of Liens
§29.08. The Automatic Stay
§29.09. [Material transferred to §29.04.]
§29.10. Avoidance Powers of Trustee
§29.11. Effect of Discharge on Liens; In General
§29.12. Examination of Bankruptcy Proceedings
§29.13A. Judicial Proceedings: Property Acquired Before Bankruptcy
§29.13B. Judicial Proceedings: Property Acquired After Bankruptcy
§29.13C. Judicial Proceedings: Which Debts Are Dischargeable?
§29.14. Abandoned Property
§29.15. Exempt Property
§29.16. Future Bankruptcies; “Creditors’ Rights”
§29.17. State Insolvency Laws
§29.18. Examples

Chapter 30 Canals

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§30.01. Historical Background
§30.02. Morris Canal Property
§30.03. Delaware and Raritan Canal Property
§30.04. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 31 - Cemeteries

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§31.01. In General
§31.02. Real Estate Transactions
§31.03. Disinterment
§31.04. Mortgage and Judgment Liens
§31.05. Real Estate Taxes
§31.06. Perpetuities
§31.07. Burial Plots
§31.08. Underwriting Practices
§31.09. Insurance of Burial Plots
§31.10. Conveyance of Land Containing Ancient Cemetery

Chapter 32 - Closing of Title

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§32.01. In General
§32.02. Title Continuation Searches
§32.03. Closing Procedures
§32.04. “Cover Record” Search
§32.05. Delays in Recording; Intervening Liens
§32.06. Escrow Closings
§32.07. Closing Funds
§32.08. Policy Issuance
§32.09. Unauthorized Practice Opinion 26 and the Practice of Law
§32.10. Permissible and Required Settlement-Related Conduct
§32.11. “Flip” Sales
§32.11A. Foreclosure “Rescue”; Short Sales and Flip Sales
§32.11B. Foreclosure Rescue Fraud Prevention Act
§32.12. Sellers’ Concessions

Chapter 33 - Club and Association Dues

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§33.01. In General
§33.02. Creation of the Obligation
§33.03. Underwriting Practices
§33.04. Cooperatives
§33.05. Condominiums
§33.06. Planned Unit Developments [PUDs]
§33.07. Streets and Roads
§33.08. Recorded Judgments

Chapter 34 Condemnation; Eminent Domain

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§34.01. Overview
§34.02. Condemnation Procedure
§34.03. Declaration of Taking
§34.04. Title Acquired
§34.05. Condemnation as Objection to Title
§34.06. Insuring Title Derived Through Condemnation
§34.07. Easements; Covenants and Restrictions
§34.08. Description
§34.09. Inverse Condemnation

Chapter 35 - Condominiums

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§35.01. In General
§35.02. The Master Deed
§35.03. Amendments to the Master Deed
§35.04. Common Elements
§35.05. Unit Ownership
§35.06. The Association; Liens for Common Expenses
§35.06A. Priority of Association’s Lien
§35.07. Blanket Liens
§35.08. Rights of First Refusal
§35.09. Termination of a Condominium
§35.10. Governmental Regulation
§35.11. Zoning
§35.12. Horizontal Property Act
§35.12A. Time-Share Condominiums
§35.13. Underwriting Practices; In General
§35.14. Survey
§35.15. Real Estate Taxes
§35.16. Condominium Dues and Assessments; In General
§35.16A. Lien Priority; Mortgages
§35.17. Tenants’ Rights
§35.18. The Sample Policy
§35.19. Unit Description
§35.20. Right of First Refusal
§35.21. Regulatory Issues
§35.22. Conversions
§35.23. Expandable Condominiums; In General
§35.24. Expandable Condominiums; Master Deed
§35.25. Expandable Condominiums; Underwriting Practices
§35.26. ALTA Endorsement 4.1-06 (Condominium)

Chapter 36 - Contracts Of Sale And Installment Contracts

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§36.01. In General
§36.02. Recording of Contract; Merger
§36.03. Specific Performance
§36.04. Vendee’s Lien; Vendor’s Lien
§36.05. Death of Vendor or Vendee
§36.06. Equitable Conversion
§36.07. Time of the Essence
§36.08. [Material relocated to §36.02.]
§36.09. Contract as Objection to Title; Vendee’s Lien
§36.10. Covenants Found in Contract
§36.11. Installment Contracts; In General
§36.12. Installment Contract as Objection to Title
§36.13. Installment Contract as a Muniment of Title
§36.14. Insuring the Vendee’s Interest Under an Installment Contract
§36.15. Enforceability of Contracts
§36.16. Attorney Review Period

Chapter 37 - Conveyances Generally

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§37.01. Overview
§37.02. Parts of the Deed
§37.03. Form and Type of Deed
§37.04. Delivery; Effective Date
§37.05. Recording
§37.06. Parties
§37.07. Description; Exceptions and Reservations
§37.08. Corrective and Confirmatory Deeds
§37.09. Estate or Interest Conveyed
§37.10. Disclaimers
§37.11. After-Acquired Title; Estoppel by Deed
§37.12. “Wild” Deeds
§37.13. Underwriting Practices; In General
§37.14. Deeds in Chain of Title
§37.15. Use of Corrective and Confirmatory Deeds
§37.16. Break in Chain; Adverse Chain
§37.17. Recitals
§37.18. Insuring Quitclaim Deeds
§37.19. Lost Deeds
§37.19A. Ancient Deeds
§37.20. Consideration
§37.21. Judgment for Conveyance of Land

Chapter 38 - Conveyances: Recording Requirements

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§38.01. In General
§38.02. Acknowledgments
§38.03. Prerequisites to Recording
§38.04. Realty Transfer Fee Related Requirements
§38.05. False Statements of Consideration
§38.06. Mortgage Cancellations
§38.07. Names and Addresses; Social Security Numbers
§38.08. Execution and Seals
§38.08A. Electronic Signatures and Electronic Recording
§38.09. Witnesses
§38.10. Recording Requirements Affecting Deeds
§38.10A. Recording Requirements; Local Custom
§38.10B. Recording Requirements; Age-Restricted Communities
§38.11. Recording Requirements Affecting Mortgages
§38.12. Recording Fees
§38.13. Validating Acts
§38.14. Certified Copies of Documents
§38.15. Recording Act

Chapter 39 - Conveyances: Acknowledgments

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§39.01. In General
§39.02. Officers Before Whom Acknowledgments May Be Taken
§39.02A. Foreign Acknowledgments
§39.03. Contents of Acknowledgment
§39.04. Defective Acknowledgments
§39.05. Sample Acknowledgments
§39.06. Underwriting Practices
§39.07. Re-Recording
§39.08. Unacknowledged Instruments

Chapter 40 - Conveyances; Realty Transfer and Related Taxes

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§40.01. In General
§40.02. Instruments Subject to the RTF
§40.03. Former Calculation of RTF (Before August 1, 2004)
§40.03A. Calculation of RTF (After August 1, 2004)
§40.04. RTF; Partial Exemptions
§40.05. RTF; Exempt and Taxable Transactions
§40.06. RTF; Affidavit of Consideration
§40.07. Mansion Tax
§40.08. Non-Resident Income Tax
§40.09. Deficiency in Payment
§40.09A. Bulk Sales Tax
§40.10. Realty Transfer Fee and Related Taxes; Underwriting Practices

Chapter 41 - Conveyances: Recording Fees

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§41.01. In General
§41.01A. Homelessness Surcharge
§41.02. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 42 - Conveyances by Municipalities and Other Governmental Bodies

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§42.01. In General
§42.02. Counties and Municipalities
§42.03. Exchanges
§42.04. Leases
§42.05. Sales to Non-Profit Organizations, etc
§42.05A. Abandoned Properties
§42.06. State Conveyances
§42.07. School Boards
§42.08. Redevelopment Agencies
§42.09. Local Housing Authorities
§42.10. Local Public Agencies
§42.10A. Port Authorities
§42.10B. Sports and Exposition Authority; Meadowlands Commission
§42.11. Economic Development Authority; Improvement Authority
§42.11A. Department of Transportation; Turnpike Authority
§42.11B. Public Utilities
§42.12. Mortgages
§42.13. Subdivision
§42.14. [Material relocated to §42.17]
§42.15. Ordinance vs. Resolution
§42.16. Underwriting Practices; Statutory Authority
§42.17. Open Public Meetings Act
§42.18. Form of Conveyance
§42.19. Tidelands Grants by State
§42.20. “Green Acres”
§42.21. Airports
§42.22. Casinos and Casino Reinvestment Development Authority

Chapter 43 - Co-Operatives

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§43.01. In General
§43.02. Establishment of a Co-operative; Statutory Authority
§43.03. Monthly Charges
§43.04. Condominiums Distinguished
§43.05. Co-operative Liens
§43.06. Creation of Interests and Recording
§43.07. Survey
§43.08. Liens Against the Fee Title
§43.09. Tenants’ Rights
§43.10. Real Estate Taxes
§43.11. Proprietary Lease, Charter and By-Laws
§43.12. The Commitment and Policy
§43.13. Description of the Unit
§43.14. Sample Policy
§43.15. The Co-Operative Recording Act
§43.16. Creation of the Co-operative Regime
§43.17. Unit Transfers
§43.18. Unit Liens
§43.19. Realty Transfer Fee
§43.20. Relationship Between the Co-Operative Corporation and the
Association
§43.21. Review of the Master Declaration
§43.22. Description of the Unit
§43.23. Creation of Interests and Recording
§43.24. Survey
§43.25. Liens Against the Fee Title
§43.26. Tenant’s Rights
§43.27. Real Estate Taxes
§43.28. Proprietary Lease
§43.29. Sample Policy
§43.30. Commitment and Policy Issuance
§43.31. Conversions
§43.32. Governmental Regulation
§43.33. Foreclosures

Chapter 44 - Co-Ownership

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§44.01. In General
§44.02. Tenancy in Common
§44.03. Joint Tenancy
§44.04. Tenancy by the Entirety
§44.05. Destruction of Co-Tenancies
§44.06. Relationships Between Co-Tenants
§44.07. Underwriting Practices; In General
§44.08. Insuring Interest of One Co-Tenant
§44.09. Avoid Description of Insureds’ Interest
§44.10. Liens vs. Co-tenants

Chapter 45 - Corporations Generally

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§45.01. Overview
§45.02. Applicability
§45.03. Formation
§45.04. Name
§45.05. Corporate Powers
§45.06. Registered Office and Agent; Annual Report
§45.07. Dissolution
§45.08. Corporate Resolution; Shareholder Approval
§45.09. Mode of Execution; Acknowledgment
§45.10. Corporate Resolution, etc
§45.11. Corporate Status
§45.12. Powers of Attorney
§45.13. Defective Execution or Acknowledgment by Corporation
§45.14. Corporations Formed Under Other Acts
§45.14A. Professional Service Corporations
§45.14B. Benefit Corporations
§45.15. Limited Dividend Entities
§45.16. Name Changes; Mergers and Consolidations

Chapter 46 - Corporations: Defunct

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§46.01. In General
§46.02. Post-Dissolution Activities
§46.03. Prior Law
§46.04. Correction of Previous Conveyance
§46.05. Franchise Tax
§46.06. Reinstatement
§46.07. Service of Process
§46.08. Underwriting Practices; In General
§46.09. Foreign Corporations
§46.10. Confirmatory or Corrective Deeds
§46.11. Conflict Between N.J.S.A. 14A:12-9 and 14:13-5
§46.12. Conveyance by Shareholders

Chapter 47 - Corporations: Non-Profit

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§47.01. In General
§47.02. Applicability
§47.03. Formation
§47.04. Name
§47.05. Corporate Powers
§47.06. Registered Office and Agent; Annual Report
§47.07. Foreign Corporations
§47.08. Dissolution: Winding-Up
§47.09. Underwriting Practices; In General
§47.10. Franchise Taxes
§47.11. Dissolution; “Winding-Up”

Chapter 48 - Corporations: Religious

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§48.01. Overview
§48.02. General Provisions
§48.03. Specific Provisions
§48.04. Baptist Church
§48.05. United Methodist Church
§48.06. Protestant Episcopal Church
§48.07. United Presbyterian Church
§48.08. Roman Catholic Church
§48.09. Non-Christian Denominations
§48.10. Underwriting Practices; Formation
§48.11. Conveyance, etc., of Church Property
§48.12. Restrictions on Use of Property
§48.13. Franchise Tax
§48.14. Dissolution; Winding-Up
§48.15. Cemeteries

Chapter 49 - Corporations: Foreign

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§49.01. In General
§49.02. Certificate of Authority
§49.03. Franchise Taxes
§49.04. Underwriting Practices; Corporate Resolution, etc
§49.05. Corporate Status
§49.06. Franchise Tax
§49.07. “Doing Business” Exclusion
§49.08. Miscellaneous

Chapter 50 - Corporations: Franchise Tax

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§50.01. In General
§50.02. Imposition of Tax; Exemptions
§50.03. Lien of Tax
§50.04. Certificate as to Lien
§50.05. Effect of Failure to Pay Tax; Reinstatement
§50.06. Foreign Corporations
§50.07. Underwriting Practices; In General
§50.08. Revocation of Charter
§50.09. Foreign Corporations
§50.10. Notes on Franchise Tax Reports
§50.11. Exempt Corporations

Chapter 51 -  Courtesy Or Accommodation Searches And Recordings

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§51.01. In General
§51.02. Limitation of Liability
§51.03. Opinion Letters
§51.04. Recording of Documents

Chapter 52 - Creditor's Rights

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§52.01. In General
§52.02. Common “Creditors’ Rights” Problem Transactions
§52.03. Fraudulent Conveyances
§52.04. Effect of Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act
§52.04A. Limitations on Enforcement
§52.05. Debtor’s Possession of Property; Revival of Liens
§52.06. Underwriting Practices; Creditors’ Rights Exclusion and Exception
§52.07. Leveraged Buy-Outs
§52.08. Fraudulent Transfers
§52.09. Waiving the “Creditors’ Rights” Exclusion or Exception
§52.09A. Bankruptcy-Remote Entities
§52.10. ALTA 2006 Policies

Chapter 53 - Decedents’ Estates: Intestate And Testate

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§53.01. Overview
§53.01A. Statutory Revisions
§53.02. Intestacy; In General
§53.03. Intestate Succession
§53.04. Administration and Distribution
§53.05. Foreign Administrators (Domiciliary Foreign Fiduciaries)
§53.06. Administration by Affidavit
§53.07. After-Born, Adopted, and Illegitimate Heirs
§53.08. Administration Not of Record
§53.09. Heirship Recitals
§53.10. Devolution of Title
§53.11. Wills; In General
§53.12. Probate
§53.13. Devises
§53.14. Elective Share
§53.15. Devise in Lieu of Dower
§53.16. Construction of Wills
§53.17. Foreign Probate
§53.17A. Foreign Intestacy
§53.18. Examination of Estate Proceedings
§53.19. Deed Recitals
§53.20. Co-Fiduciaries
§53.21. Disclaimers; In General
§53.22. Disclaimers; Underwriting Practices
§53.23. Fiduciary Conveyances
§53.24. The Testamentary Power of Sale
§53.25. The Fiduciary Powers Act
§53.26. Insuring Fiduciary Conveyances; General Rule
§53.27. Relaxation of the General Rule
§53.28. Exhausting the Executor’s (or Administrator’s) Power of Sale
§53.28A. [Material Transferred to §54.11.]
§53.29. Liens Against Devisees or Heirs; Marital Rights
§53.30. Testamentary Trusts
§53.31. Co-Executors; Co-Trustees
§53.31A. Delegation by Fiduciary
§53.32. Conveyancing Practices
§53.33. Intentional Death of Decedent
§53.34. Simultaneous Death
§53.35. Declaration of Death

Chapter 54 - Decedents’ Estates; Taxes and Debts

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§54.01. Overview
§54.02. Transfer Inheritance Tax: In General
§54.03. Transfer Inheritance Tax: Exemptions; Taxable Transfers
§54.04. Transfer Inheritance Tax: Extent and Duration of Lien
§54.05. Transfer Inheritance Tax: Equitable Conversion
§54.06. Transfer Inheritance Tax: Payment of the Tax; Waiver
§54.07. Federal Estate Tax: In General
§54.08. Federal Estate Tax: Exemptions
§54.09. Federal Estate Tax: Payment; Release
§54.09A. New Jersey Estate Tax
§54.10. Statutory Lien of Estate Debts
§54.11. Insolvent Estates.

Chapter 55 - Descriptions

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§55.01. In General
§55.02. Types of Descriptions
§55.03. Problems with Descriptions
§55.04. Rules of Construction; Monuments and Boundaries
§55.05. Commitment Description
§55.06. Erroneous Record Descriptions
§55.07. Inconsistent Descriptions; Plotting
§55.08. Descriptions of Adjoining Lands; Overlaps and Gores
§55.09. Description Used in Policy

Chapter 56 -  Easements As Objections To Title And As Insurable Interests

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§56.01. In General
§56.02. Insurable Easements
§56.03. Waiving Easements as Objections to Title
§56.04. Easements Created by Implication (Necessity) or Prescription
§56.05. Affirmative Insurance Regarding Easements
§56.06. Further Information

Chapter 57 - Environmental Law

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§57.01. In General
§57.02. Environmental Matters in the Chain of Title
§57.03. Overview of Environmental Legislation
§57.04. Use of ALTA Endorsements 8.1-06 and 8.2-06
§57.05. Recapitulation (ALTA Endorsements 8.1-06 and 8.2-06)
§57.06. Environmental Risks; “Due Diligence” Searches
§57.07. Lead-Based Paint
§57.08. Disclosure of Off-Site Conditions
§57.09. Private Well Testing
§57.10. Other Environmental Statutes

Chapter 58 - Escheat And Forfeiture

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§58.01. Overview
§58.02. Escheat Procedure
§58.03. Alternative Procedures
§58.04. Underwriting Practices; Title Derived Through Escheat
§58.05. Underwriting Practices; Alternative Procedures
§58.06. Escheat as Objection to Title
§58.07. Escheat of Personalty
§58.08. Forfeiture to the State
§58.09. Forfeiture to the United States

Chapter 59 - Escrows

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§59.01. Overview
§59.02. Escrow Agreements; In General
§59.03. Place and Type of Deposit of Funds
§59.04. Nature of Funds Deposited and Withdrawn
§59.05. Deposit of Documents
§59.06. Title-Holding Escrows
§59.07. Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (FIRPTA)
§59.08. Tax Reform Act of 1986; Reporting Requirements
§59.09. Relationship Between Escrows and Commitment and Policy
§59.10. Escrow Fees
§59.11. Bankruptcy of Depositor
§59.12. Further Information

Chapter 60 - Extended Coverage

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§60.01. In General
§60.02. Underwriting Practices
§60.03. Further Information

Chapter 61 -  Federal Housing Administration [Fha], Department Of Housing And Urban Development [Hud] And Department Of Veterans Affairs [Dva]

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§61.01. Overview
§61.02. Loan Policy Provisions; Foreclosure.
§61.03. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Chapter 62 -   Federal National Mortgage Association [FNMA], Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation [FHLMC], And Government National Mortgage Association [GNMA]

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§62.01. Overview
§62.02. Loan Policy Provisions
§62.03. Loan Underwriting Requirements

Chapter 63 - Federal Taxation

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§63.01. In General
§63.02. Creation of Federal Tax Liens
§63.03. Filing and Duration of Lien
§63.04. Enforcement of Lien
§63.05. Divesting of Federal Tax Liens
§63.06. Right of Redemption of United States
§63.07. Federal Tax Lien as Objection to Title
§63.08. Mortgage Foreclosures
§63.09. Federal Tax Lien as Muniment of Title
§63.10. Real Estate Transaction Reporting Requirements
§63.10A. 1099-MISC Reporting
§63.11. Effect of Reporting on Title Companies
§63.12. Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act [FIRPTA]; Generally
§63.13. FIRPTA; Underwriting Practices
§63.14. Like-Kind Exchanges

Chapter 64 - Fiduciaries

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§64.01. In General
§64.02. Exercise of Powers
§64.03. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 65 - Filed Maps

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§65.01. Overview
§65.02. Streets
§65.03. Land Use
§65.04. Map Filing Law
§65.05. Underwriting Practices; Description
§65.06. Exceptions Based on Filed Map
§65.07. Amendment of Filed Map
§65.08. Unfiled or Ancient Filed Maps
§65.09. Highway Maps
§65.10. Further Information

Chapter 66 - Fixtures and Crops

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§66.01. Fixtures
§66.02. Crops

Chapter 67 - Flood Searches

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§67.01. In General
§67.02. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 68 - Future Interests

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§68.01. Overview
§68.02. “Future Interests” Defined
§68.03. Underwriting Practices; In General
§68.04. Enforceability of Certain Future Interests
§68.05. Reverters Found in Restrictive Covenants
§68.06. Rule Against Perpetuities

Chapter 69 - Hospitals and Health Care Facilities

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§69.01. In General
§69.02. Underwriting Practices
§69.03. List of Sites

Chapter 70 - Indemnities and Undertakings

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§70.01. Overview
§70.02. The Personal Undertaking
§70.03. The Indemnity with Deposit
§70.04. Letters of Indemnity
§70.05. Performance vs. Straight Letter
§70.06. Issuance of Indemnity Letters
§70.07. Underwriting Practices
§70.08. Indemnity Treaty

Chapter 71 - Judgments, Execution Sales, And Miscellaneous

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§71.01. Overview
§71.02. Judgment Liens; In General
§71.03. Duration of Lien
§71.04. Property Affected by Lien
§71.05. Judgments Against Governmental Bodies
§71.06. Foreign Judgments
§71.07. Satisfaction of Judgments
§71.08. Miscellaneous Liens
§71.08A. Child Support Orders
§71.08B. Recognizances
§71.08C. Institutional Liens; Medicaid Liens
§71.08D. PACA and PASA Liens
§71.09. Priority of Judgment Liens
§71.10. Writs of Attachment
§71.11. Execution Sales
§71.12. Appeals; Relief from Judgment
§71.13. Underwriting Practices; In General
§71.14. Disposition of Judgments
§71.15. Insuring Titles Derived Through Execution Sales

Chapter 72 - Judicial Proceedings

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§72.01. Overview
§72.02. Historical Background; England
§72.03. Historical Background; New Jersey
§72.04. The Current Court System
§72.05. Examination of Proceedings
§72.06. Judgment for Conveyance of Land
§72.07. Judicial Proceeding as Objection to Title
§72.08. Judicial Proceeding as Muniment of Title
§72.09. Appeal Period; Re-Opening of Judgments
§72.10. Servicemembers Civil Relief Act

Chapter 73 - Leases and Leasehold Policies

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§73.01. Overview
§73.02. Nature of Leasehold Interest
§73.03. Recording; Judicial Sale
§73.04. Realty Transfer Fee
§73.05. Sale-Leaseback Transactions; Synthetic Leases
§73.06. Subordination, Attornment and Non-Disturbance
§73.07. Leasehold Mortgages
§73.08. Insuring Leaseholds
§73.08A. Energy Project Endorsements
§73.09. Options to Renew or Purchase
§73.10. Lease vs. Memorandum
§73.11. Assignments of Leases; Estoppel Certificates
§73.12. Liens and Encumbrances
§73.13. Leasehold Policy Pricing
§73.14. Leases as Objections to Title
§73.15. Residential Leaseholds

Chapter 74 - Liens, Defects and Encumbrances

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§74.01. In General
§74.02. Policy Coverage
§74.03. Real Estate Brokers’ Liens
§74.04. “Common Law” Liens

Chapter 75 - Lis Pendens

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§75.01. In General
§75.01A. Operation and Effect
§75.02. Lis Pendens as a Muniment of Title
§75.03. Lis Pendens as an Objection to Title
§75.04. The “Stale” Lis Pendens
§75.05. Parties Affected by Lis Pendens
§75.05A. The “Expired” Lis Pendens
§75.06. Actual Notice
§75.07. Further Information

Chapter 76 - Marital Rights

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§76.01. Overview
§76.02. Dower; Historical Background
§76.03. Dower Today
§76.04. Curtesy; Historical Background
§76.05. Curtesy Today
§76.06. Jointure; Ante-Nuptial Agreements
§76.07. Devise in Lieu of Dower
§76.08. Assignment of dower; Admeasurement; Quarantine
§76.09. Abolishment of Dower and Curtesy
§76.10. Incidents of Dower and Curtesy
§76.11. Extinguishment of Dower and Curtesy
§76.12. Joint Possession of the Principal Matrimonial Residence
§76.13. Incidents of the Right of Joint Possession
§76.14. Divorce; Equitable Distribution
§76.15. Underwriting Practices; Spouses to Join in Conveyance, etc
§76.16. Analyzing Divorce Judgments
§76.17. Insuring Titles Derived Through Divorce Judgments
§76.18. Liens Against Marital Property
§76.19. Partnership Property
§76.20. Joint Tenancies and Tenancies in Common
§76.21. Tenancies by the Entirety
§76.22. Marital Status Recitals
§76.23. Conveyances Between Spouses
§76.24. Domestic Partnerships
§76.24A. Domestic Partnerships; Underwriting Practices
§76.24B. Civil Unions
§76.24C. Civil Unions; Underwriting Practices
§76.24D. Same-Sex Marriages
§76.24E. Same-Sex Marriages; Underwriting Practices
§76.24F. Civil Unions and Same-Sex Marriage: Commitment Requirements
§76.25. Annulment
§76.26. Common Law Marriage

Chapter 77 - Marketability of Title

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§77.01. In General
§77.02. “Marketability” Defined
§77.03. Contract Provisions
§77.04. “Insurable Title” Defined
§77.05. Specific Performance
§77.06. Underwriting Practices; In General
§77.07. Slander of Title

Chapter 78 - Mechanics’ Liens and Construction Liens

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§78.01. In General
§78.02. Mechanics’ Liens
§78.03 - §78.07. These sections have been intentionally omitted
§78.08. Overview of the Construction Lien Law
§78.09. Operation of the Construction Lien Law
§78.10. Priority of Mortgages
§78.11. Recording of Lien Claim; Discharge, Etc
§78.12. Enforcement of Lien Claim
§78.13. Effective Date; Applicability
§78.14. Underwriting Practices; In General
§78.15. Underwriting Practices; Conveyances
§78.16. Underwriting Practices; Construction Mortgages
§78.17. Table of Exhibits

Chapter 79 - Mineral Rights

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§79.01. In General
§79.02. Lateral and Subjacent Support; Subsidence
§79.03. Insuring Mineral Rights
§79.04. Mineral Rights as Objections to Title

Chapter 80 - Mobile Homes and Manufactured Housing

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§80.01. In General
§80.02. Underwriting Practices; In General
§80.03. ALTA Endorsement 7

Chapter 81 - Mortgages Generally

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§81.01. Historical Background
§81.01A. Modern Developments; Definitions
§81.02. Nature and Requisites of Mortgages
§81.02A. Inquiry By Lender
§81.03. Priority of Mortgages; Assumption; “Wrap-Around Mortgages”
§81.04. Assignment of Mortgages
§81.05. Satisfaction of Mortgages
§81.05A. Discharge by Affidavit; etc.
§81.05B. Inadvertent Cancellation; Reinstatement
§81.06. Subordination Agreements; In General
§81.07. Subordination Agreements; Automatic vs. Separate
§81.08. Subordinations; Leaseholds
§81.09. [Intentionally omitted; see §81.08.]
§81.10. Modification Agreements; In General
§81.11. Modification Agreements; Statutory Changes
§81.12. [Material transferred to §84.03A]
§81.13. [Material transferred to §82.10]
§81.14. [Material transferred to §84.03B]
§81.15. [Material transferred to §82.11]
§81.16. Clogging; Historical Background
§81.17. Clogging; Modern Developments
§81.17A. Islamic Financing
§81.18. Irregular Security Transactions; Equitable Mortgages
§81.19. Mortgage as Objection to Title; In General
§81.20. Mortgage as Objection to Title; “Ancient” Mortgage; Statute of
Limitations
§81.20A. Mortgage as Objection to Title; Cancellation by Court
§81.21. Equitable Subrogation and Subordination
§81.22. Recording of Mortgages
§81.23. Deeds of Trust
§81.24. Table of Exhibits
§81.25. Further information

Chapter 82 - Construction Mortgages and Advance-Money Mortgages

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§82.01. Overview
§82.02. Priority of Advance-Money Mortgages; In General
§82.02A. Advance-Money Mortgages; Underwriting Practices
§82.03. Priority of Mortgages; Mechanics’ and Construction Liens
§82.04. Underwriting Practices; “Pending Disbursement” Exception
§82.04A. Owner’s Policy; “Pending Construction” Exception
§82.05. Construction “Run-Down” Endorsements
§82.06. ALTA Loan Policy Coverage
§82.07. Special Construction Loan Endorsement
§82.08. Loan “Workouts”
§82.09. Open-Ended Mortgages
§82.10. Revolving Credit Mortgages
§82.11. Revolving Credit Mortgage as Objection to Title

Chapter 83 - Mortgage Foreclosures

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§83.01. Overview
§83.01A. Foreclosure-Related Issues
§83.02. Mortgage Foreclosure as Objection to Title
§83.03. Insuring Titles Derived Through Foreclosures
§83.04. Strict Foreclosure (Re-foreclosure)
§83.04A. Pendente Lite (Receiver’s) Sale
§83.04B. Federal Receivership
§83.05. Foreclosure Sale; In General
§83.05A. Foreclosure Sale; Bankruptcy Implications
§83.06. Redemption Following Sale
§83.06A. Redemption by United States
§83.06B. Deficiency Judgments
§83.07. Deeds in Lieu of Foreclosure
§83.08. Right of Redemption of United States
§83.09. HUD Multi- and Single-Family Foreclosures
§83.09A. Fair Foreclosure Act and Related Legislation
§83.09B. Fair Foreclosure Act; Underwriting Practices
§83.09C. Foreclosure of Vacant Residential Properties
§83.10. Lender’s Acquisition of Title; Policy Coverage.
§83.11. Mortgage Foreclosure Insurance Policy

Chapter 84 - Mortgage Policies and Endorsements

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§84.01. In General
§84.02. Coverage Afforded by the Loan Policy
§84.03. Insuring Mortgages and Assignments Thereof
§84.03A. Insuring Modification Agreements
§84.03B. Insuring Revolving Credit Mortgages
§84.04. Priority of Insured Mortgage; “First Lien” Clauses
§84.05. Schedule B and Schedule B - Part II of Loan Policy
§84.06. Errors in Mortgage; Description
§84.07. Usury
§84.08. Consumer Protection; Truth-in-Lending; “Predatory” Lending
§84.09. “Doing Business”; Regulation of Lenders
§84.10. Collateral Instruments
§84.11. Collateral Guaranty Mortgages
§84.12. Affirmative Insurance; Special Coverage
§84.13. Mortgage Policy Endorsements
§84.14. Exotic Endorsements
§84.15. Notice and Waiver
§84.16. Amount of Insurance; Co-Insurance
§84.17. Pro Forma Policies

Chapter 85 - Notice of Settlement

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§85.01. In General
§85.01A. Statutory Revisions
§85.02. Operation and Effect of the Notice of Settlement
§85.03. Underwriting Practices
§85.04. Preparation of Notices of Settlement

Chapter 86 - Options and Rights of First Refusal

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§86.01. In General
§86.02. Priority of Options
§86.03. Insurance of Options
§86.04. Option Insurance Pricing
§86.05. Option as Muniment of Title
§86.06. Option as Objection to Title
§86.07. Retail Gas Stations

Chapter 87 - Owners' Policies

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§87.01. In General
§87.02. Coverage Afforded by the Owners’ Policies
§87.03. Who is the Insured?
§87.04. Coverage after Conveyance of Title
§87.05. Pricing; Co-Insurance; Inflation Coverage
§87.06. Liens vs. the Insured
§87.07. “Notice and Waiver”
§87.07A. “Owner in Possession” Policy
§87.08. ALTA 9-06, 35-06, and 36-06 Series of Endorsements
§87.09. Creditors’ Rights Exclusion
§87.10. “Going Concern” and Other Endorsements
§87.11. Mezzanine Financing
§87.12. Pro Forma Policies

Chapter 88 - Parties in Possession

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§88.01. In General
§88.02. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 89 - Partition Suits

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§89.01. In General
§89.02. Parties entitled to partition
§89.03. Procedure Generally
§89.04. Partition in Kind (Physical Partition)
§89.05. Partition Through Sale
§89.06. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 90 - Partnerships

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§90.01. Overview
§90.02. Creation and Nature
§90.03. Dissolution and Winding-Up
§90.04. Trade Name Certificates
§90.05. Conveyance, Lease, or Mortgage
§90.06. Execution and Acknowledgments
§90.07. Judgments
§90.08. Vesting of Title
§90.09. Joint Ventures
§90.10. Non-Imputation Endorsement
§90.11. Partnership as Named Insured
§90.12. Change in Partnership Composition; Dissolution and Winding-Up
§90.13. Powers-of-Attorney
§90.14. “Fairway” Endorsement
§90.14A. Merger; Consolidation
§90.15. Limited Liability Partnerships

Chapter 91 - Limited Partnerships

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§91.01. In General
§91.02. Creation and Nature
§91.03. Execution and Acknowledgment
§91.04. Amended Certificates
§91.05. Foreign Limited Partnerships
§91.06. Dissolution and Winding-Up
§91.07. Underwriting Practices; Proof of Formation
§91.08. Conveyance, Lease, or Mortgage
§91.09. Foreign Limited Partnerships
§91.10. Judgments; Franchise Taxes
§91.10A. Merger; Consolidation
§91.11. Dissolution; Winding-Up
§91.12. Master Limited Partnerships

Chapter 92 - Limited Partnership Associations and Limited Liability Companies

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§92.01. Limited Partnership Associations; In General
§92.02. Underwriting Practices
§92.03. Franchise Taxes
§92.04. Limited Liability Companies; Overview
§92.05. Creation and Nature of LLCs
§92.06. Dissolution; Winding-Up by LLCs
§92.07. Foreign Limited Liability Companies
§92.08. Merger; Consolidation
§92.09. Franchise Taxes; Annual Reports
§92.10. Execution and Acknowledgment
§92.11. Underwriting Practices; Proof of Formation
§92.12. Conveyance, Lease, or Mortgage
§92.13. Foreign LLCs
§92.14. Judgments
§92.15. Franchise Taxes
§92.16. Dissolution; Winding-Up
§92.17. Series LLCs
§92.18. Limited-Dividend Entities

Chapter 93 - Persons Under Disability

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§93.01. Overview
§93.02. Guardians of Minors and Incapacitated Individuals
§93.02A. Adult (Multi-State) Guardianships
§93.03. Conservatorships
§93.04. Conveyance, etc., by Guardian
§93.05. Conveyance by Conservator
§93.06. Form of Execution by Guardian or Conservator
§93.07. Uniform Transfers to Minors Act

Chapter 94 - Plain Language

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§94.01. In General
§94.02. Compliance with Act
§94.03. Effect of Violation
§94.04. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 95 - Planned Unit Developments (PUDS)

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§95.01. In General
§95.02. Governmental Regulation
§95.03. DeMinimis PUDs
§95.04. PUD vs. Condominium
§95.05. ALTA Endorsement 5.1-06
§95.06. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 96 - Powers of Attorney

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§96.01. In General
§96.02. Durable Powers of Attorney; Disability of Principals
§96.03. Affidavit of Non-Revocation
§96.04. Attorney-in-Fact as Fiduciary
§96.05. Scope of Authority
§96.06. Form and Execution of Instrument Made Under Authority of Powerof-
Attorney
§96.07. Delegation by or to Attorney-in-Fact; Co-Attorneys-in-Fact
§96.08. Powers of Attorney in Chain of Title
§96.09. Self-dealing by Attorney-in-Fact
§96.10. Revocation of Powers of Attorney; Continued Viability
§96.11. Powers of Attorney in Transactions to be Insured

Chapter 97 - Quiet Title Suits and Related Remedies

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§97.01. In General; Historical Background
§97.02. Quiet Title Suits Today
§97.03. Quiet Title; “Unknown Owners”
§97.04. Quiet Title; Effect of Final Judgment
§97.05. Quia Timet Actions
§97.06. Use and Misuse of Quiet Title and Quia Timet Proceedings
§97.07. Underwriting Practices
§97.08. Related Proceedings
§97.09. Reformation
§97.10. Rescission

Chapter 98 - Railroads and Public Utilities

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§98.01. Overview
§98.02. Background
§98.03. Recent Developments
§98.04. Government Regulation
§98.05. Railroad Taxes
§98.06. Conveyances of Railroad Property
§98.07. Conveyances from the “New Corporations”
§98.08. Conveyances from the State
§98.09. Conveyances from Other Entities
§98.10. Judgments and Mortgages
§98.11. Quality of Title
§98.12. Conveyances by Other Public Utilities

Chapter 99 - Real Estate investment Trusts, Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduits, and Securitized Mortgages

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§99.01. Overview
§99.02. Underwriting Practices
§99.03. Mortgage Defeasance

Chapter 100 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) and Truth-in-Lending Act (TILA)

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§100.01. In General
§100.01A. RESPA; Settlement Statement; CFPB and TRID
§100.01B. RESPA; Prohibited Conduct
§100.01C. RESPA; Affiliated Business Arrangements
§100.02. RESPA-Compliant Practices
§100.03 CFPB; TRID-Compliant Practices
§100.03A. TRID Settlement Practices
§100.04. TILA and Other Truth-in-Lending Regulations

Chapter 101 - Real Estate Taxes, Assessments,and Tax Sale Certificates

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§101.01. In General
§101.02. Assessment; Exemption
§101.03. Added and Omitted Assessments
§101.04. Farmland Rollback Assessments
§101.05. Assessments for Municipal Improvements
§101.06. Assessment Agreements
§101.07. Official Searches
§101.08. Tax Maps
§101.09. Collection of Tax; Adjustment at Closing
§101.10. Ordering Tax and Assessment Searches
§101.11. Policy Exceptions
§101.12. Condominiums and Co-Operatives
§101.13. Exempt Properties; Abatements
§101.14. Sales “Free and Clear” of Liens
§101.15. Municipal Utility Service
§101.16. Tax Sale Certificates; In General
§101.17. Redemption of Certificate
§101.18. Life of Certificate
§101.19. Assignment of Certificate
§101.20. Tax Sale Certificate as Objection to Title
§101.21. Tax Sale Certificate as Muniment of Title
§101.22. ALTA Endorsements

Chapter 102 - Real Estate Taxes: Foreclosure

Download Chapter 102
§102.01. Overview
§102.02. Foreclosure In Rem; In General
§102.03. Commencement of Suit
§102.04. Notice Provisions
§102.05. Final Judgment
§102.06. Re-Opening of Judgment; Correction of Irregularities
§102.07. In Rem Foreclosure as Objection to Title
§102.08. Insuring Titles Derived Through Foreclosures In Rem
§102.09. Description of Property Foreclosed
§102.10. Conveyance by Municipality
§102.11. Other Statutes
§102.12. Foreclosure In Personam; In General
§102.13. Procedure
§102.14. Priority of Lien
§102.15. Unknown Owners
§102.16. Final Judgment; Post-Judgment Redemption
§102.17. In Personam Foreclosure as Objection to Title
§102.18. Insuring Titles Derived through Foreclosures In Personam

Chapter 103 - Receiverships

Download Chapter 103
§103.01. In General
§103.02. Powers of the Receiver
§103.03. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 104 - Restrictive Covenants

Download Chapter 104
§104.01. In General
§104.02. Creation and Imposition of Restrictions
§104.03. Notice of Restrictions
§104.04. Neighborhood Schemes
§104.05. Enforcement of Restrictions
§104.06. Extinguishment of Restrictions
§104.07. Unenforceable Restrictions
§104.08. Underwriting Practices; Restrictive Covenants in Chain of Title
§104.09. Underwriting Practices; Affirmative Insurance
§104.09A. Racial Restrictions
§104.09B. Private Transfer Fees
§104.10. Reverter Clauses
§104.11. Termination of Restrictions
§104.12. Developers’ Agreement
§104.13. “Green Acres” Restrictions
§104.14. Affordable Housing (“Mt. Laurel”) Restrictions
§104.15. Conservation and Historical Preservation Restrictions

Chapter 105 - Schools

Download Chapter 105
§105.01. In General
§105.02. Conveyance of Public School Property
§105.03. Lease-Purchase Agreement
§105.04. “School Use” Restrictions
§105.05. Devise in Trust to School Board
§105.06. Conveyance of Private School Property
§105.07. Effect of the Higher Education Facilities Act

Chapter 106 - Settlement Services

Download Chapter 106
§106.01. In General
§106.02. Settlement Funds
§106.02A. Settlement Account Security; Wire Fraud
§106.03. CFPB TRID Compliance
§106.04. Title Insurance; Disposition of Objections to Title
§106.05. Avoiding the Unauthorized Practice of Law
§106.06. Real Estate Broker’s “Lien”
§106.07. Lenders’ Instructions
§106.08. Escrows; Title Indemnities
§106.09. Title Continuation Searches
§106.10. Post-Closing Procedures
§106.11. “Cover Record”
§106.12. Intervening Liens; Gap Coverage
§106.13. Notice of Settlement
§106.14. Settlement Charges
§106.15. “FIRPTA” Withholding
§106.16. Real Estate Transaction (“1099”) Reporting
§106.17. Three-Day Right of Rescission
§106.18. “Money Laundering” Reporting Requirements
§106.19. Certificates of Occupancy; Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detectors;
Fire Extinguishers
§106.20. Lead-Based Paint
§106.21. Disclosure of Off-Site Conditions
§106.22. Private Well Testing
§106.23. “Flip” Sales
§106.23A. Foreclosure “Rescue”; Short Sales and Flip Sales
§106.24. Sellers’ Concessions

Chapter 107 - Statutes of Limitation

Download Chapter 107
§107.01. In General
§107.02. Common Statutes of Limitation

Chapter 108 - Surveys

Download Chapter 108
§108.01. In General
§108.02. Survey Exception and Endorsement
§108.03. Survey Standards
§108.04. Survey Reading
§108.04A. Contiguity
§108.05. Affirmative Insurance
§108.06. Survey Not Presented
§108.07. Waiver of Survey Exception.
§108.07A. Other Survey-Related Endorsements
§108.08. Acreage or Quantity of Land
§108.09. Ancient Measurements
§108.10. Boundary Line Disputes; Gores; Overlaps
§108.11. Party Walls

Chapter 109 - Trusts

Download Chapter 109
§109.01. Historical Background
§109.02. Modern Trusts
§109.02A. Uniform Trust Code
§109.03. Constructive and Resulting Trusts
§109.04. Statute of Uses
§109.05. Creation and Modification of Trusts
§109.06. Powers and Duties of Trustees
§109.07. Revocation or Termination of Trusts
§109.08. Underwriting Practices
§109.09. Co-Trustees; Successor Trustees
§109.10. Passive Trusts
§109.11. Vesting of Title; Business Trusts
§109.12. Land Trusts
§109.13. “Living Trusts”
§109.14. Inter Vivos Trust Endorsement

Chapter 110 - Uniform Commercial Code Filings

Download Chapter 110
§110.01. Overview
§110.01A. Article 9 Revised
§110.02. Prior Laws Repealed
§110.03. Creation of Security Interest
§110.04. Filing; Duration of Lien
§110.05. Filing Fees; Accommodation Filings
§110.06. Priorities
§110.07. UCC as Objection to Title
§110.08. UCC as Insurable Interest
§110.09. Bulk Sales

Chapter 111 - United States of America

Download Chapter 111
§111.01. Insuring the United States
§111.02. Conveyance by the United States
§111.02A. Postal Service
§111.03. Navigational Servitude
§111.04. United States as Party Defendant
§111.05. Seizure and Sale of Property
§111.05A. Patriot Act
§111.06. Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA)
§111.07. Insuring Conveyances under FIRREA
§111.08. FDIC as Receiver for Failed Banks
§111.09. Credit Unions

Chapter 112 - Usury

Download Chapter 112
§112.01. In General
§112.02. Underwriting Practices

Chapter 113 - Vacation of Streets, Roads, and Other Lands

Download Chapter 113
§113.01. Overview
§113.02. Vacations; in General
§113.03. Insuring Vacated Streets
§113.04. “Marginal” Streets
§113.05. Vacations Not Insured
§113.06. Plank Roads and Turnpikes
§113.07. Vacation of Other Lands

Chapter 114 - Vesting of Title

Download Chapter 114
§114.01. In General
§114.02. Entities in Whom or in Which Title May Properly Be Vested
§114.02A. Natural Persons
§114.03. Entities in Whom or in Which Title May Not Properly Be Vested
§114.04. Avoiding Common Errors in Vesting
§114.05. Title Vested Improperly of Record

Chapter 115 - Waters and Water Rights

Download Chapter 115
§115.01. Overview
§115.02. Historical Background; England
§115.03. Historical Background; United States
§115.04. The “Public Trust” Doctrine
§115.05. Tidelands in New Jersey
§115.06. Remedies of the Record Owner
§115.07. Riparian (Tidelands) Grants
§115.08. Statements of No Interest
§115.09. Suits to Quiet Title
§115.10. Underwriting Practices; In General
§115.10A. Underwriting Practices; Tidelands Grants
§115.11. Navigational Servitude
§115.12. Affirmative Insurance
§115.13. Beach and Shore Rights
§115.14. Private Rights in Waters; Dams
§115.15. Description of Land Abutting Water
§115.16. Wetlands; In General
§115.17. Wetlands; Underwriting Practices
§115.18. Summary of Wetlands and Related Regulation
§115.19. Stream Encroachment Permits
§115.20. Summary of Water-Related Exceptions

Chapter 116 - Zoning and Planning; Land Use Regulation

Download Chapter 116
§116.01. In General
§116.01A. Material has been transferred to §116.08A
§116.01B. Material has been transferred to §116.08B
§116.02. Overview of Land Use Regulation
§116.03. Subdivisions Generally; Exemptions
§116.04. Subdivisions; Merger of Lots
§116.05. Perfecting Subdivisions
§116.06. Unlawful Subdivisions; Subdivision Certificates
§116.07. Condominiums and Cooperatives
§116.08. Underwriting Practices; Policy Exclusions
§116.08A. ALTA Zoning Endorsements
§116.08B. Subdivision Endorsement
§116.09. Affordable Housing (“Mt. Laurel”) Restrictions
§116.10. Inter-relationship between Restrictive Covenants and Zoning
Ordinances
§116.11. Environmental Land Use Regulation

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